Thousands of Chinese Coolies Pressed Into Service in Army

The Bend Bulletin, Dec 8, 1937.jpg
The Bend Bulletin, December 8, 1937
Healdsburg Tribune, December 8, 1937

[ note ]
I have no information to support this article.
So I have not waived the possibility that this article contains numerical exaggeration, or misunderstanding.

If this article is fact, I do not know fate of coolies.
But I pay attention to the description by Miner Searle Bates.

"Evidences from burials indicate that close to forty thousand unarmed persons were killed within and near the walls of Nanking, of whom some 30 per cent had never been soldiers."

Or "30 per cent" may mean "new recruits".
[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : November 17, page 22 ]
"Several columns of new recruits were a pathetic sight: all in more less ragged civvies, each with a bundle on his back and a rusty rifle in hand."
[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : November 18, page 22-23 ]
"At the same time many regiments of new soldiers are arriving in the city from the north. It would appear, then, that the plan is stubbornly to defend the city. Many of the soldiers look awful wretched. Entire columns arrive without any footwear."

However, we can find some information about coolies were handled by Chinese (or Chiang's) army.

Ways That Are Dark: The Truth About China, page 53
Ways That Are Dark: The Truth About China, by Ralph Townsend, page 53

Shark's Fins and Millet, page 125
Shark's Fins and Millet, page 125

Thunder Out Of China, page 255-256
Thunder Out of China, by Theodore H. White, page 255-256
Date: 2017.02.20
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

F. Tillman Durdin

(Wikipedia) F. Tillman Durdin

The Daily Republican, October 15, 1937
Date: 2016.10.29
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

George Ashmore Fitch

(Wikipedia) George Ashmore Fitch

He was a "personal friend of General Chiang Kai-Shek".
Oakland Tribune, Jun 2. 1938
Oakland Tribune, June 2, 1938

Oakland Tribune, Jun 12. 1938
Oakland Tribune, June 12, 1938

The New York Times, May 28, 1941
The New York Times, May 28, 1941
Date: 2016.05.21
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Miner Searle Bates

(Wikipedia) Miner Searle Bates

However, he was an "adviser to the Central Chinese government".
Carroll Daily Herald, Dec 30. 1937
Carroll Daily Herald, December 30, 1937

The Des Moines Register, Feb 5, 1944
The Des Moines Register, Feb 5, 1944
Date: 2016.05.19
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Another View of Japan

[ The New York Times : January 16, 1938 ]

Another View of Japan
Exception Is Taken to Statements In Dr. Brown's Letter

I venture to disagree with some of the things which Dr. Arthur J. Brown says in his letter to THE TIMES.
I cannot agree with the statement that press reports of the Far Eastern disturbance have been fair. When the Japanese Army is accused, in general terms, of all sorts of atrocities at Nanking, specifically including the dragging of women from refugee camps, and when, a few days later, well-supported circumstantial reports appeared showing that such acts were committed by Chinese, including officers of as high rank that of colonel, it means that the original statement has, for many readers, including, apparently, Dr. Brown, gone uncorrected.

No Dictator
It seems misleading to suggest, in terms allusive to European conditions, that the government of Japan is a military dictatorship. The distribution of power in the Japanese Government has its roots in so long a history and one so different from that of Europe that I cannot expatiate upon it here; but there can be no dictatorship without a dictator, and there is no dictator in Japan. The Navy and Army Ministers have direct access to the throne; so has the civilian Ministry; and the head of the whole Ministry is always accounted a civilian. It is, further, a mistake to suppose that the Navy and Army Ministers always act in concert.
"What degree of control he [the Emperor] really exercises," says Dr. Brown, "few men in Japan and no one outside of it know." This is true in the sense that, as the exercise of the Emperor's prerogatives is optional, it cannot be predicted. But that his power can be very great is shown by the way in which it was exercised during the Meiji reign (1868-1912), and was suggested by the way in which the disorders of February, 1936, were terminated.

Close to War
Again, I disagree with the statement that "the people of Japan have no means of intelligently judging," etc. The censorship of the press in Japan is by no means "rigid." Such utterances as those of President Roosevelt at Chicago and of Secretary Hull at various times have been printed in full in Japan.
Furthermore, the Japanese have the advantage, which most people here have not, of having always lived close to the arena of conflict and of being well acquainted with its history. It is probably an understatement to say that nine-tenths of the people hereabouts who are now expressing opinions knew little or nothing about the situation before the breaking out of hostilities and headlines. Dr. Brown does not come within that category and will probably agree with the statement.
I do not think that the Japanese people, as a whole or in large part, desire any further subordination of the armed forces to any one below the throne. In conceivable circumstances they might like to see civilian influences work up through the throne and back to the forces. This does not indicate a servile subjugation. The Japanese, though a docile and homogenous, are an exceedingly high-spirited people, and no government which fails to take this into account can hope to succeed.
Date: 2015.02.10
Category: Comparison of the descriptions
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