Telegram by Harold John Timperley

"The Japanese believe that there are now signs in Shanghai that the Chinese leaders are willing to talk peace. Some success is reported in the Japanese negotiations with General Tang Shengchi, commanding Nanking, to surrender the city and the 300,000 troops between Nanking and Wuhu."
The Kalgoorlie Miner, December 10, 1937

"Marshal Chiang Kai-shek says that since the opening of the campaign the Chinese Army has sustained 300,000 casualties. The loss of civilian life and property is incomputable."
Queensland Times, December 18, 1937

"The Japanese have created an autonomous commission in Nanking as a purely local administration, under Mr. Tao Hsi-shan, who has issued a manifesto thanking the Japanese for the restoration of peace and order and undertaking to rehabilitate the Nanking region with their assistance."
The West Australian, December 27, 1937

"The cable message lodged, by the "Manchester Guardian" correspondent, Mr. H. J. Timperley, and held up by the Japanese censors, quoted a "North China Daily News" story, confirming his own information of Japanese atrocities in the Nanking area. The Japanese censor described them as unsubstantiated reports maliciously intended to besmirch the good name of the Japanese army."
The Kalgoorlie Miner, January 25, 1938

"(Not) less than three hundred thousand Chinese civilians slaughtered, many cases (in) cold blood. Robbery, rape, including children (of) tender years, an insensate brutality towards civilians continues (to) be reported from areas where actual hostilities ceased weeks ago."
(Wikimedia) Nanking telegram Harold John Timperley : January 17, 1938

[ note ]
H. J. Timperley was an adviser of the International Information Division of the Central Propaganda Bureau of the Nationalist Party from 1939 to April 1941.
The West Australian, December 14, 1954
The Evening Independent, November 12, 1941

Minoru Kitamura cites "A Biographical Dictionary of Foreigners in China in the Modern Age" written in 1981 by the Chinese Social Sciences Publishing Co., which states that "in 1937, after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, the KMT dispatched [Timperley] to Europe and the United States to engage in propaganda activities", as well as the memoirs of Zeng Xubai, the head of the Kuomintang Central Information Department, who is quoted by Wang Lingxiao, the author of "The KMT's News Administration Policy", as saying, "we decided that our first step would be to make payment to Timperley, and also, through his coordination, to Smythe, and commission both of them to write and publish two books for us as witnesses to the Nanking Massacre".
(Wikipedia) Minoru Kitamura

Sharks Fins and Millet, page 135
Shark's Fins and Millet, by Ilona Ralf Sues, page 135

"Miss Sues, it is seven minutes to five, October 7, 1937."
"T.V. Soong and Harry Timperley are handling our foreign publicity in Shanghai."
(Wikipedia) William Henry Donald
Date: 2014.01.06
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Nanking International Relief Committee

[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 29, Nov. 23. 1937 ]
"Tea party given by Mr. Chang Chun, the former foreign minister and now chief secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [...] The "main idea" is that all of us remaining Europeans and Americans are to gather each evening between eight and nine o'clock at the International Club, so that we can remain in contact with leading Chinese figures of their representatives."

[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 192, Feb. 12. 1938 ]
"Shortly before the city was taken by the Japanese, two functionaries of the Chinese government sought and were given refuge in my house. They came equipped with bags full of money and on various occasions gave my servants tips that were far beyond reason.
Since Chiang Kai-shek had promised our committee a donation of 100,000 dollars in toto, of which we were able, with much difficulty, to collect 80,000, I demanded a written statement from these two gentlemen that they were in possession of no other moneys for the International Committee of the Nanking Safety Zone."

[ The New York Times : January 22, 1938 ]
Chinese Halted Near Wuhu
"Japanese authorities at Nanking took over the activities of the international relief committee. The organization, composed of American missionaries and German business men, was characterized by a Japanese spokesman as "really a semi official Chinese Government organ." It had been caring for 250,000 refugees.
The spokesman did not question the motives of the committee, but asserted that 1,500 Chinese soldiers had sought shelter in the committee's refugee zone after the fall of Nanking and that arms were found there.
The individual status of American and German members of the committee, the spokesman added , was not changed, and they were not requested to leave Nanking. However, for military reasons, he asserted, neither foreign nor Japanese civilians would be permitted to visit the captured Chinese capital."

Herald Journal, Jan 22, 1938 - "20,000 JAPANESE RUSH TO RELIEVE"
The Deseret News, Jan 21, 1938 - "Japan Seizes Control Of International Relief Body"
Date: 2014.01.05
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone : Dec. 18

[ Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone : December 18, 1937 ]
"Yesterday, in broad daylight, several women at the Seminary were raped right in the middle of a large room filled with men, women, and children"

"We have notified you several times of the presence of soldiers who disarmed and entered the Zone on the afternoon of December 13th. But now we can safely assure you that there are no groups of disarmed Chinese soldiers in the Zone."

(PDF) *Dec. 27, 1937 "International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone" : From Yale University Library : NMP0159

[ note ]
On December 17th, beggining 13:30, Japanese troops were going to Nanking Entry Ceremony.

[ The New York Times : January 4, 1938 ]
SHANGHAI, Jan. 3. American professors remaining at Ginling College in Nanking as foreign members of the Refugee Welfare Committee were seriously embarrassed to discover that they had been harboring a deserted Chinese Army colonel and six of his subordinate officers. The professors had, in fact, made the colonel second in authority at the refugee camp. The officers, who had doffed their uniforms during the Chinese retreat from Nanking, were discovered living in one of the college buildings: They confessed their identity after Japanese Army searchers found they had hidden six rifles, five revolvers, a dismounted machine gun and ammunition in the building. The ex-Chinese officers in the presence of Americans and other foreigners confessed looting in Nanking and also that one night they dragged girls into the darkness and the next day blamed Japanese soldiers for the attacks. The ex-officers were arrested and will be punished under martial law and probably executed.


[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 172-173, Feb. 3. 1938 ]
Report from the China Press in Shanghai, 25 January (Excerpt)

Claiming that many Chinese army officers and other ranks were seeking refuge in the International Safety Zone established in Nanking following the evacuation of the capital by Chinese troops, Colonel Nagai, army spokesman, announced the report of the Nipponese gendarmerie in Nanking at yesterday's press conference・・・
It was ascertained, the report claimed , the high officers of the Chinese army were evacuated by their staffs. Up to December 28 , it said, 23 chinese officers, 54 non-commissioned officers, and 1,498 privates were seized by the Japanese in the various building in the zone.
Among them, it was claimed, was the commander of the Nanking peace preservation corps, Wang Hsianglao, "who masqueraded as Chen Mi" and was in command of the forth branch detachment of the International Safety Zone, Lieutenant General Ma Poushang, former adjutant of the 88th Division, and high official of the Nanking police, Mi Shinshi.
General Ma, it is claimed, was active in instigating anti-Japanese disorders within the zone, which also sheltered Captain Huan An and 17 rifles, while the report states that Wang Hsianglao and three former subordinates were engaged in looting, intimidating and raping.
Date: 2014.01.05
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

The New York Times : January 9, 1938

[ The New York Times : January 9, 1938, by F. Tillman Durdin ]
"Wholesale looting was one of the major crimes of the Japanese occupation. Once a district was in their full control, Japanese soldiers received free rein to loot all houses therein. [...] Occupants of homes were robbed and any who resisted were shot."

"Many Chinese civilians who failed to leave the southern and southwestern sections of the city were killed, the total probably running as high as the total of military dead. This writer, visiting the South City after the Japanese had occupied the area, found sections of it almost demolished by Japanese shelling, and Chinese civilian dead were lying everywhere."

[ Documents of the Nanking Safety Zone : December 17, 1937 ]
"In other words, on the 13th when your troops entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat."
December 17, 1937 "International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone"

[ The New York Times : December 9, 1937, by F. Tillman Durdin ]
"The entire heavily populated area around the south gate was cleared people, who have been sent to the city's safety zone, and a district the size of a small city was being set afire."

[ Diaries of Minnie Vautrin ]
December 8, 1937
"This evening we are receiving our first refugees - and what heartbreaking stories they have to tell. They are ordered by Chinese military to leave their homes immediately if they do not they will be considered traitors and shot. In some cases their houses are burned, if they interfere with the military plans. Most of people come from near South Gate and the southeast part of city."

December 9
"Tonight the flames are lighting the sky above the whole southwest corner of the city and during much of the afternoon we have seen clouds of smoke rising from every direction save northwest. The aim of the Chinese military is to get all obstructions out of their way - obstructions for their guns and possible ambush or protection for Japanese troops. McDaniel of Associated Press says he watched the fires being started with kerosene. The owners of these houses are the refugees who have been coming into the city in great crowds during the last two days."

December 10
"Fires have been seen around the city a good part of day, and tonight the sky to the west is aflame - the destruction of the houses of the poor just outside city wall."

December 14
"There was also occasional rifle firing - probably by Japanese guards at marauding group of Chinese soldiers or looters.
I could also here firing at Hsia Gwan and in my imagination it was at small sanpans filled with soldiers, trying to across the Yangtze and get away to the north."

(PDF) *Microfilmed collection of Vautrin papers includes her diary
Date: 2014.01.05
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Dead bodies of Hsiakwan

[ Wikipedia ]
John Rabe gave a series of lectures in Germany after he came back to Berlin on April 15, 1938, in which he said, "We Europeans put the number [of civilian casualties] at about 50,000 to 60,000."
Wikipedia: John Rabe
Wikipedia: The Good Man of Nanking

[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 212 ]
We Europeans put the number at about 50,000 to 60,000. According to the Red Swastika Society, which had taken on the task of burying the bodies, but could not bury more than 200 a day, there were about 30,000 bodies still lying unburied in the suburb of Hsiakwan on 22 February 1938, the date I left Nanking.

[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 197, Feb. 15. 1938 ]
What shocks me most about a report by our committee that cannot be made public is the observation that although the Red Swastika Society has thus far been burying about 200 bodies a day, there are still 30,000 to be dealt with, most of them in Hsiakwan. Those numbers tell the story of the last Chinese troops that crowded into Hsiakwan and were unable to escape across the Yangtze.
Date: 2014.01.05
Category: Comparison of the descriptions

Films on YouTube

(1) There are links of other Nanking film on the right side, but it is not possible to see these links when you access my site on a smartphone.

(2) Later part of the "Paramount News" possibly include picture which was filmed before the fall of Nanking.
1. (0:44-0:46) After Japanese occupation, burial activities began on December 22, 1937.
2. Wounded Chinese soldiers on the other battlefield, including Battle of Shanghai, were transported to Nanking and Wuhu mainly.
[ THE GOOD MAN OF NANKING : page 29, November 23 ]
"A steady stream of wounded men are arriving at Hsiakwan station. Dr Smythe sends some student volunteers to the station to receive them."
[ Diaries of Minnie Vautrin : November 20 ]
"The many wounded soldiers in Hsia Gwan are badly in need of help. University students have been working down there all day."
3. (1:13 - ) This woman has been recorded in another film.
Norman Alley's Bombing of USS Panay Special Issue 1937 Newsreel
Kingsport Times, Jan 4, 1938 reported "Victim of Jap Bomb in Nanking".

Date: 2014.01.04
Category: Films on YouTube

Shina-jihen Gaho No.22 支那事変画報 第22集

Convention of anti Chiang Kai-shek

Augast 31, 1938
Large photo of central was photographed in Nanking

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 22 (1)

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 22 (2)

Upper - Shanghai
Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 22 (3)

Left - Hefei (合肥=盧州) Right - Jiujiang (九江)
Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 22 (4)

Under - Shanghai
Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 22 (5)

Source : Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho ("Sino-Japanese War Photograph News" Asahi Shimbun newspaper) No.22, published on October 1, 1938.
Date: 2014.01.03
Category: Sino-Japanese War Photograph News

Shina-jihen Gaho No.15 支那事変画報 第15集

Establishment ceremony of The Reformed Government of the Republic of China, in Nanking, March 28, 1938


Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 15 (1)

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 15 (2)

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 15 (3)

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 15 (4)

Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho No 15 (5)

(All pages of this book) *孔夫子拍卖网 - 支那事变画报 第十五辑

Source : Asahi-ban Shina-jihen Gaho ("Sino-Japanese War Photograph News" Asahi Shimbun newspaper) No.15, published on May 5, 1938.

March 28, 1938 Chinese newspaper article
March 28, 1938 Chinese newspaper article, from Yale University Library.

(Wikipedia)Reformed Government of the Republic of China
Date: 2014.01.03
Category: Sino-Japanese War Photograph News

February 26, 1938



The Courier-Mail, Australian Newspaper, February 23, 1938
Tao Hsi-shan, the chairman of the Red Swastika Society of Nanking.
I guess this photo to have been taken on December 23, the day of establishment of Nanking autonomous commission.

The Courier-Mail FEB 23, 1938
Date: 2014.01.02
Category: February 1938

January 1938

January 1, 1938


(Nanking Autonomous Commission inaugural ceremony)

(Tao Hsi-shan, chairman of Nanking autonomous commission)

(Chinese band for celebration)

January 20, 1938

January 1938







Date: 2014.01.02
Category: January 1938
About This Blog

Last Update : March 25, 2017
Some information added to past posts.


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